The nation`s founders originally intended for the presidency to be a restricted institution. They distrusted the executive because their experience with colonial governors had taught them that the executive was detrimental to freedom, because they felt betrayed by the actions of George III, King of Great Britain and Ireland, and because they felt that a strong executive was incompatible with the republicanism adopted in the Declaration of Independence (1776). As a result, their revolutionary constitutions provided only for nominal executives, and the Articles of Confederation (1781-89), the first « national » constitution, did not establish an executive. The Supreme Court of the United States, in united states v. Pink (1942), considered that international executive agreements that have been concluded in force have the same legal status as treaties and do not require the approval of the Senate. T92  The Italian Constitution provides that a former President of the Republic accepts the title of President Emeritus of the Italian Republic and that he or she is also a senator for life and enjoys certain privileges of immunity, fugitive status and official residences. . . .